Chapter 1
Chapter 2
What is Location?
Chapter 3
Spatial Databases and GIS
Chapter 4
Basics of Wireless Communications
Chapter 5
Cellular Networks and Location Management
Chapter 6
Fundamentals of Positioning
Chapter 7
Satellite Positioning
Chapter 8
Cellular Positioning
Chapter 9
Indoor Positioning
Chapter 10
Interorganizational LBS Operation
Chapter 11
Architectures and Protocols for Location Services
Chapter 12
LBS Middleware
Chapter 13
LBS - The Next Generation

Architectures and Protocols for Location Services

A very important subservice needed for building an LBS is the so-called location service (LCS). While an LBS takes location data in order to compile, filter, or select any information or provide any other added value to the user depending on location data, an LCS is primarily concerned with the mere delivery of location data. Compared to position fixes, which only contain a position and perhaps the target’s identity or the positioning method used, location data contains additional high-level information that is more appropriate for processing by an LBS application. Usually, location data is composed of a location provider if a location request arrives from a consumer, for example, an LBS provider. This request specifies at least the target location for which the data is needed, the desired format of representation, and the desired quality.

This chapter shows the realization of different types of LCSs in GSM/UMTS networks. The following section identifies the components involved in their operation and explains the related signaling flows between them. An important application area that makes use of LCSs are emergency services, which are covered in a subsequent section by taking E-911 as a showcase. Finally, the chapter introduces different location protocols for making location data available to external actors.


  • GSM and UMTS Location Services
    • LCS Network Architecture
    • LCS Functional Entities
    • Location Procedures
    • Privacy Options
    • Outlook to Future Releases
  • Enhanced Emergency Services
    • Wired Enhanced Emergency Services
    • Wireless Enhanced Emergency Services
  • Mobile Location Protocol
    • MLP Structure and Location Services
    • Example
    • Outlook to Future Releases
  • WAP Location Framework
    • WAP Overview
    • WAP Location Services
  • Parlay/OSA
  • Geopriv
    • Georpriv Entities
    • Location Objects
    • Georpiv Outlook
  • Conclusion

last modified on:
September 28, 2005