Chapter 1
Chapter 2
What is Location?
Chapter 3
Spatial Databases and GIS
Chapter 4
Basics of Wireless Communications
Chapter 5
Cellular Networks and Location Management
Chapter 6
Fundamentals of Positioning
Chapter 7
Satellite Positioning
Chapter 8
Cellular Positioning
Chapter 9
Indoor Positioning
Chapter 10
Interorganizational LBS Operation
Chapter 11
Architectures and Protocols for Location Services
Chapter 12
LBS Middleware
Chapter 13
LBS - The Next Generation


Although Location-based Services have been an issue in the field of mobile communications for many years, there exists neither a common definition nor a common terminology for them. For example, the terms location-based service, location-aware service, locationrelated service, and location service are often interchangeably used. One reason for this dilemma might lie in the fact that the character and appearance of such services have been determined by different communities, especially the telecommunications sector and the ubiquitous computing area.

The GSM Association, which is a consortium of 600 GSM network operators, simply defines LBSs as services that use the location of the target for adding value to the service, where the target is the ”entity” to be located (and this entity is not necessarily also the user of the service). This abstract definition raises of course the question of what a concrete added value is. The GSM Association (2003) presents three examples where the added value is given by the filtering of information (for example, selecting nearby points of interest), showing the location of a target on a map, or automatically activating the service when a target enters or leaves a predefined location. Another similarly abstract definition of LBSs is given by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which is an international federation of many national standardization authorities aiming at providing the specification for GSM and UMTS: an LBS is a service provided by a service provider that utilizes the available location information of the terminal (3GPP TS 23.271).... Read more (pdf)


  • What are Location-based Services
  • Application Scenarios
    • Business Initiatives
    • Public Initiatives
  • LBS Actors
  • Standardization
  • Structure of this Book

last modified on:
September 28, 2005